Unesco World Heritage Sites in Scotland
St. Kilda Archipelago (1986, 2004,2005)
The island group St. Kilda with the main island Hirta is located approx. 60 km west-northwest of North Uist in the North Atlantic. The archipelago is one of the western islands of the Outer Hebrides. The main island is Hirta, which has an area of 6.7 km². The islands are the remains of an extinct ring volcano. The first written records of the island are dated to the late Middle Ages.
In the 18th century, Hirta was abandoned and in 1930 the island was evacuated. In addition to Hirta, the archipelago also includes Soay, Boreray, Stac Lee, Dun and Stac Levenish, among others. The highest point of the islands is on Hirta and is approx. 430 m high. Out of the sea pinnacles like Stac an Armin with 196 m and Stac Lee with 170 m are impressive. In 2005, indications were found that St. Kilda had been inhabited for 2000 years. Pottery shards were found and numerous stone blades, mortars and knives from the Broze period were discovered in a quarry. The islands are a breeding area for sea birds such as B. gannets, puffins, wave walkers and fulmars, and there are endemic (only living here) birds. A herd of Soay sheep and a herd of Wild Boreray sheep live on St. Kilda,
The harsh climate of the Irish Sea means that there are no trees on the islands and few plants thrive. However, there are flowering plants, mushrooms, lichens and mosses. Due to the distance from the mainland, the islanders lit a fire until the late 19th century when they wanted to have contact with the outside world, because they rarely had the opportunity to leave the islands, as the rocks in the sea landed and started with the waves Made boats very dangerous. In 1877 a so-called mail boat was sent to the mainland, small wooden boats were built and a message was put inside and thrown into the sea.
The current drove the boats to the mainland and a lot of this “boat mail” was found there and help organized. A rite of the islanders is well known: a suitor “had to prove to his bride with a test of courage that he woos her and values her. He had to do a given on the so-called“ mistress stone ”, a rock in front of the pinnacles in the middle of the sea Adjust figure.
The archipelago has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1986, as well as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 2004 and 2005 this world heritage site was expanded
The old town of Edinburgh is located on a 135 m high cliff on which the fortress “Edinburgh Castle” is located. It was built between 1057 and 1093. Below the rock there was swampy terrain until the 18th century. Holyrood Abbey from the 11th century, the chapel from the 12th century, the Holyrood House from the 15th century, the home of John Knox from the 16th century and the Coronation Church of Mary Queen of Scots make Edinburgh’s old town one historical experience.
The English tried several times to conquer Edinburgh, only the St Magaret’s Chapel of the fortress was not destroyed. In the 16th century, the first 10-story skyscrapers were built in Edinburgh because the rock didn’t have enough space for the expanding city. At the end of the 18th century, the swamps that surrounded the castle rock were drained and new streets and houses could be built. A bridge connects the old town with the new town and although the districts were built in different architectural styles at different times, they form a harmonious whole. Edinburgh was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1995 for
a full description of the city see Edinburgh.
Neolithic monuments in the Orkney Islands (1999)
The Orkney Islands were also part of the Kingdom of Norway until the middle of the last century. You can find an abundance of prehistoric treasures from different eras. In addition to the 12th century St Magnus Cathedral, the Maes Howe, Great Britain’s most imposing Stone Age tomb, the Standing Stones of Stenness, the Bronze Age Ring of Brodgar and the Stone Age village of Skara Brae are worth seeing.
The Neolithic monuments there were added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1999
New Lanark Industrial Model Estate (2001)
In 1785 a spinning mill was set up about 40 km from Glasgow and at the same time housing was being built for the workers, the first school for workers’ children was also established, child labor was severely restricted and a school for midwives was set up. Production increased through the exemplary fabric, and mortality decreased. This model settlement was visited by Tsar Nicolaus I in order to bring about any changes in Russia. The model settlement was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2001.
Hadrian’s Wall, Antonine Wall (2008)
Hadrian’s Wall was built by the Romans across what is now England from 122 AD and was intended to prevent military encroachments by the Scottish Picts. It stretched over 120 km in the border area between England and Scotland and ran from the west coast to today’s Wallsend, which was north of a Roman military road.
The Antoninuswall (Vallum Antonini = Wall of Antoninus) was built by the Romans in a record time of two years between 142 and 144. The wall extended for a length of around 60 km from Old Kilpatrick on the Firth of Clyde to Carriden on the Firth of Forth in what is now Scotland. It was built to partially take over the tasks of Hadrian’s Wall, which stretched around 160 km to the south. The Antonine Wall was lower and less fortified than the Hadtian’s Wall, but only about half as long. In addition, it had a denser network of forts, which made it easier to see and defend.
The Antonine Wall was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2008. It should be mentioned that Hadrian’s Wall in 1987 and the Limes were entered in the list of UNESCO World Heritage in 2005 as part of the German cross-border World Heritage.
Forth Bridge in Queensferry (2015)
This bridge is one of the first bridges in the world to be built from steel. It is located about 15 km west of Edinburgh between South Queensferry and North Queensferry. The structure is a double-track railway bridge over the Firth of Forth, the estuary of the River Forth.
It was built between 1882 and 1890 and has a total length of 2,523 m – with a height of 43 m. The headroom for ships naturally varies with the height of the tide. The bridge is part of the railway line from Edinburgh across the Fife Peninsula and the Firth of Tay to Dundee and then on to Aberdeen. It should be mentioned that the local tidal range can be more than 6 m and leads to strong tidal currents.
The Forth Bridge in Queensferry was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2015.