General information about Denmark
The official name is the Kingdom of Denmark (Kongeriget Danmark). Located in Northern Europe. The area is 43 thousand km2, the population is 5.4 million people. (2002). The official language is Danish. The capital is Copenhagen (with suburbs over 1.3 million people, 2002). Public holidays – Queen’s Birthday (April 16, 1940), Constitution Day (since June 5, 1849). The monetary unit is the Danish krone.
Denmark includes the Faroe Islands and the island of Greenland, which enjoy internal autonomy.
Member of the UN (since 1945), NATO (since 1949), Nordic Council (since 1952), EU (since 1973), OSCE, OECD, IMF, IBRD, EBRD, etc.
Geography of Denmark
Denmark is located between 8-13 ° east longitude and 54-58 ° north latitude on the Jutland Peninsula and nearby islands. It is washed in the west by the North Sea, in the north by the Skagerrak Strait, in the east by the Kattegat and Øresund straits, in the southeast by the Baltic Sea. The coast of Denmark, especially in the east, is strongly indented, and nowhere can you move more than 52 km from the coast. The total length of the coastline reaches 7314 km, half of which falls on the share of 406 islands, which together occupy 40% of the country’s area. Most of the islands are concentrated in the east of the country and are combined into the Danish archipelago. The largest islands are Zealand, Funen, Lolland, Bornholm. In the south it borders on Germany. The length of the land border is 68 km.
The main part of the relief is plains subjected to glaciation. The prevailing heights are 30-50 m above sea level. The highest point is the hill of Iding-Skovkhoy (173 m). The surface is strongly dissected in places.
Since 1972, oil has been produced in the Danish sector of the North Sea, and since 1984, natural gas, which fully meet the country’s needs for these types of fuel. The reserves of hydropower are insignificant. Deposits of peat and brown coal are of local importance. Large reserves of limestone and clay.
Soils – podzolic and brown – have undergone strong cultivation.
According to bridgat, the climate is temperate oceanic. Summers are not hot, winters are mild. The average temperature in February is approx. 0o C, July – approx. +15o C. The average annual rainfall ranges from 800 mm in the west to 450 mm in the east.
Denmark has a dense network of small rivers, which are mainly fed by rainwater. Floods happen in winter. The longest river is Gudeno. Numerous predominantly flowing lakes are small in size. Groundwater plays an important role.
Broad-leaved forests have survived only in the form of separate arrays. The main breed is beech. There are two types of oak: sessile and pedunculate. The need to expand livestock grazing largely led to the destruction of forests. From Ser. 19th century forests are being restored, spruce is being planted first of all. The animal world has changed a lot under the influence of human economic activity. For example, beavers have completely disappeared, and the number of deer and roe deer has decreased. Many species of predatory animals were destroyed. The last wolf was killed in 1813. Fallow deer, spotted deer, and pheasant were introduced.
The Faroe Islands are located in the Norwegian Sea, roughly halfway between Scotland and Iceland. They include 24 islands, the largest being Streymoy, Esturoy and Suvuroy. Territory – 1399 km2. All the islands are of volcanic origin and are composed of basalts and tuffs. The climate is maritime with plenty of rain, with winds and fogs. There are no forests. Lots of birds. Coastal waters are rich in cod, halibut, herring. The administrative center is Torshavn (16 thousand people).
The world’s largest island, Greenland, is located in the Arctic and Atlantic oceans. Territory – 2176 thousand km2. Almost the entire territory of the island is covered with continental ice. The administrative center is Nuuk (Gothob) (13 thousand people). Reserves of many minerals have been identified, but only zinc, lead and silver are mined.
Population of Denmark
Population growth rate 0.29% (2002). Ethnic composition – Danes (98%), Faroese, Greenlanders, Germans, Turks, Persians, Somalis. Languages – Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic, German. Birth rate – 11.74 ‰, mortality – 10.81 ‰, infant mortality – 4.97 people. per 1000 newborns, the average life expectancy for men is 74 years, for women – 80 years (2002). The age structure of the population: up to 14 years old – 19%, 15 – 64 years old – 66%, 65 years and older – 15%. There are more women than men, by about 60 thousand people, women in old age predominate. Net migration is 2.01‰. Literacy is 100%.
The state religion is Lutheranism (95%); Protestants and Catholics make up 3%, Muslims – 2% of the believing population.
The population of the Faroe Islands is 47 thousand people, mainly Faroese. The official languages are Danish and Faroese. The main religion is Lutheranism.
The population of Greenland is 56 thousand people, incl. 45 thousand – Inuit Greenlanders. The official languages are Greenlandic and Danish.